In Dedication: to Grant Waldeck, a rising junior at the high school where I teach in Waxahachie, TX and a direct descendant of the man for whom the Waldeck Regiment is named. Gott mit Uns!
The information contained in this post is drawn from the following sources:
von Eelking, Max. German Allied Troops: In the North American War of Independence, 1776-1783, (Applewood Books, 1893).
Katcher, Philip R. N. Encyclopedia of British, Provincial, and German Army Units, 1775-1783, (Stackpole Books, 1973).
Lewis, James L. Neptune's Militia: The Frigate South Carolina during the American Revolution, (The Kent State University Press, 1999).
Lowell, Edward J. The Hessians and the Other German Auxiliaries of Great Britain in the Revolutionary War, (Corner House Historical Publications, 1997).
Pettengill, Ray W., translator. Letters from America, 1776-1779: Being Letters from Brunswick, Hessian, and Waldeck Officers with the British Armies During the Revolution, (The Riverside Press, 1924).
Schecter, Barnet. The Battle for New York: The City at the Heart of the American Revolution, (Walker Publishing Company, 2002).
Starr, J. Barton. Tories, Dons, and Rebels: The American Revolution in British West Florida, (The University Presses of Florida, 1976).
Uhlendorf, Bernhard A., translator and annotator. Revolution in America: Confidential Letters and Journals, 1776-1784, of Adjutant General Major Baurmeister of the Hessian Forces, (Rutgers University Press, 1957).
In this blog, there have been several posts addressing the occurrence of German-speaking individuals or groups of individuals on board the frigate South Carolina. Of course, Alexander Gillon, Commodore of the Navy of South Carolina and ranking officer on board the frigate South Carolina spoke German fluently and used this skill to his advantage many times in many different and widely-varied geographical locales in the course of the history and life of the frigate South Carolina. Michael Kalteissen, as a native of Germany, as Gillon's subordinate officer in the militia unit they formed together, the German Fusiliers of Charleston, SC, as well as a founding member of the German Friendly Society in Charleston, SC, also spoke German.
There have been three separate posts concerning the German-speaking Pennsylvanians from the immediate area of Reading and Lancaster, PA who signed on board the frigate South Carolina for her final, brief cruise leading to her capture by the three British men-of-war off Cape Henlopen, on December 20, 1782. These posts have been respectively dated, from earliest to most recent, "09/28/2014", "01/01/2015", and finally, "06/05/2015". Being that there were three separate posts concerning these men from this specific area of Pennsylvania, some of the individuals by name have been addressed in some detail. As can be ascertained for these three separate posts, these men's experiences were basically the same due to the fact that they sailed on board the frigate South Carolina on her final voyage that resulted in the capture of the frigate and led many of them ultimately into the hellish environment of the prison ship Jersey where certainly a majority of them perished.
The single, lengthy post of "12/15/2014" addressed the Hessian prisoners-of-war who signed on board the frigate South Carolina as her new marine contingent just before she departed on her final voyage in late 1782. These men would have faced an uncertain future, having been incarcerated for five years by the patriots after their surrender at Saratoga in October, 1777, only to be recaptured by the three British men-of-war on December 20, 1782. Their uncertainty stemmed from the fact that they had signed on with the frigate South Carolina as their new marine contingent and were thus serving the patriot Cause at the moment of their recapture. According to Lewis's work Neptune's Militia, page 89, these former German soldiers represented four units in the German army serving the British here in the New World in the course of the American Revolution. These units were Regiment Erbprinz, Regiment von Reidesel, Lieutenant Colonel de Menge's Battalion of Grenadiers, and Regiment von Specht. The roster cited in the post dated "12/15/2014" and concerning the former-German soldiers, now marines on board the frigate South Carolina contains forty-nine names. There is even a single member of the Regiment Brunswick named in the roster.
If one examines the roster of the former German soldiers who signed onto the frigate South Carolina as her new marine contingent, one also encounters two other names than the single Brunswicker. These two names are certainly German, though their names seem to be transcribed. This is a curious transcription in that their first names are of Spanish origin but, their last names seem to be phonetic spellings of last names that are definitely non-Spanish in origin. I will cite both of these men here as they are cited in Lewis's work, Neptune's Militia, the section entitled "Appendix: Crew and Marines of the South Carolina" along with the page number of each of their entries in this previously named section.
Carlos Clain/Clayne German recruiter (Waldeck Regiment) page 141
Enrique Veber (Bever?) German soldier (Waldeck Regiment) page 169
First, this writer should address the name issue. The two names cited above differ from the two names contained in the title of this post. There is a reason for this discrepancy. These two individuals were Germans and had German names, no doubt. After their capture by the Spanish, Spanish officials would have recorded their names using a simple formula which this blog writer has observed in other Spanish documents where non-Spanish individuals also have had their non-Spanish names recorded. For the first name, the Spanish would have translated it into a Spanish equivalent. Thus, Carlos would have come from "Karl" and Enrique would have come from "Heinrich". For the last name, the Spanish officials would have phonetically spelled it out using Spanish-language sound equivalents. In so doing, "Klein" would have become Clain or Clayne and "Weber" (or "Webber") would have become Veber. So, one can see the Spanish-transliterated names above and their true German equivalents in the title of this post.
But, these two men have much more in contrast when compared with the men of the four units listed above, as well as the single Brunswicker. According to Katcher, Encyclopedia of British, Provincial, and German Army Units, 1775-1783, all of the men cited individually in the post dated "12/15/2014" concerning the Hessian prisoners-of-war were members of units captured along Brigadier-General "Gentleman" John Burgoyne at Saratoga, NY in October 1777. All of these men would have gone into patriot captivity as the "Convention Army" due to a "convention" that was signed between Burgoyne and Major-General Horatio Gates at Saratoga, NY. These men would have been held as prisoners-of-war in various different camps, prisons and gaols until the day that a German-speaking, Commodore Alexander Gillon would be permitted to address them in their native language concerning their possibility of escaping incarceration through signing on with the frigate South Carolina. Thus, the men of these three regiments and single battalion would have arrived in Quebec in the summer of 1776 and been captured a little over one year later at Saratoga, NY in October 1777.
In contrast, the Waldeck Regiment had been here in North America just about as long as any of the three mentioned regiments and single battalion but, had been involved in much heavier fighting and over a much, much larger area of the continent. Of course, we are speaking of individual men in this post who served at one point or another on board the frigate South Carolina rather than whole regiments of German-speaking soldiers. But, one must keep in mind the fact that these men also served earlier in these self-same regiments before serving on board the frigate South Carolina. Therefore, without knowing exactly when these two men fell into the hands of the Spanish, we must go with the history of the 3rd Waldeck Regiment here in North America as a type of indication as to where these two men might have served.
First, according to Katcher's work, Encyclopedia of British, Provincial, and German Army Units, 1775-1783, page 126, this specific regiment is more properly known as the 3rd Waldeck Regiment. Again, according to the Katcher work, page 126, this regiment was "...raised specifically for British service, May 1776, and arrived in New York, October 1776..." Once in New York, it took part in the assault on Fort Washington and the subsequent defense of Staten Island. Afterwards, the regiment was sent to Pensacola, FL and served there until that post fell to the Spanish on May 10, 1781. After this debacle. the prisoners-of-war from the 3rd Waldeck Regiment were sent to Havana, Cuba for about a month and then paroled to New York where they returned to duty in July 1782. They served until their return to Germany in July 1783. According to the Katcher work, page 126, in composition, the regiment consisted of "...24 officers, 650 infantrymen, two 3 lb. guns and 14 artillerymen." The uniform of the 3rd Waldeck Regiment consisted of a dark blue coat with bright yellow facings and white small clothes. The citation for the 3rd Waldeck Regiment contained in Katcher's work, Encyclopedia of British, Provincial, and German Army Units, 1775-1783, concludes with a recitation of the commanding officers of the regiment while it was stationed in North America. There were only two commanding officers in North America - Lieutenant Colonel J.L.W. von Hanxleden, May 1776 until January 1781, and Lieutenant Colonel A. von Horn, January 1781 until the regiment's return to Germany in July 1783. This is a standard regimental history containing only pertinent details about the basic deployments of the regiment and ensuing engagements the regiment was involved in due to those assignments. But, one can find more specific details of the movements of the regiment if one examines other sources concerning Hessian activities in the colonies during the American Revolution. It is in these details provided by other sources, both primary and secondary, that one can gain a more true picture of the scope and variety of the actions and assignments of the 3rd Waldeck Regiment that led to these two Waldeckers, Karl Klein and Heinrich Weber, being in Havana, Cuba when the frigate South Carolina moored there on January 12, 1782.
Von Eelking's work, German Allied Troops, page 47-48, gives certainly the most detailed description of the regiment's composition and departure from Germany, bound for America. This work states that "the regiment marched away on the 20th of March, 1776, and the last farewell was a promise that all who returned should be taken to their homes in carriages. It consisted of a Grenadier company, 134 strong, and four musketry companies, each 130 strong, two three-pound guns and 14 artillerymen, and with a staff of 16, counted in all 684 strong. The Colonel was v. Hanxleden, the Adjutant Lieutenant Steirlein, the Captains Hacken, von Horn, Alberti, Pentzel.... The Waldeckers received from their prince each a hymn book, in addition to the prayer book given him as a part of his regular outfit." The time line of the 3rd Waldeck Regiment after this description of their departure from their German homeland, according to von Eelking's work, German Allied Troops, page 48, is succinctly stated as thus: June 3, 1776 - set sail from Germany, bound for Portsmouth, England; June 20, 1776 - arrived in Portsmouth, England; July 20, 1776 - departed from Portsmouth, England for New York City; October 18, 1776 - the regiment reached New York City; October 24, 1776 - the 3rd Waldeck Regiment reached New Rochelle where it joined with other British and German army units.
According to the unit history recorded in Katcher's work, Encyclopedia of British, Provincial, and German Army Units, 1775 -1783, page 126, the 3rd Waldeck Regiment served in two geographical locations in North America during the American Revolution - the environs of New York City and East/West Florida. Beginning with the first geographical location of the Waldeck Regiment, according to Pettengills' work, Letters from America, page xxiii, "the other German forces with which we are concerned - those from Hessen-Cassel, Waldeck, and Anspach - were sent to New York and saw service along the seaboard from Rhode Island to Florida." Again, this fairly well encompasses the scope of operations for the 3rd Waldeck Regiment during its participation in the American Revolution. The 3rd Waldeck Regiment arrived in New York City and took part in the heavy fighting around the environs of the city during the summer/fall of 1776. According to Pettengill's work, Letters from America, page xxiv, "...the Waldeck Regiment arrived and shared in the battle of Chatterton Hill on October 28th, the storm of Fort Washington on November 16th, and the New Jersey campaign." The "...battle of Chatterton Hill..." is better known as the Battle of White Plains in more recent scholarship and records indicate that the German troops served well and suffered huge casualties there. At the storming of Fort Washington, the 3rd Waldeck Regiment was there, mounting the glacis of the fort in the face of a barrage of cannon, grapeshot, and musket and rifle fire, again, sustaining heavy casualties but, successfully taking the fort. Afterwards, the 3rd Waldeck Regiment would go on to participate in the campaign to secure New Jersey for the British Crown, which entailed the pursuit of the patriot forces under General George Washington across the length of New Jersey until they exited that colony by crossing the Delaware River into the colony of Pennsylvania.
(Note: According to Schecter's work, The Battle for New York, page 241, The 3rd Waldeck Regiment did not arrive on the battlefield until after the Battle of White Plains was over rather than taking part on the battle itself - "on October 30  Lord Percy arrived at White Plains with six regiments of Hessians and one of Waldeckers newly arrived in New York from Germany." Pettengill's work, Letters from America, cited in the paragraph above and Schecter's work, The Battle for New York, cited here are in discrepancy with one another as to whether or not the 3rd Waldeck Regiment participated in the Battle of White Plains (Chatterton's Hill). According to Lowell's work, The Hessians and the Other German Auxiliaries, page 75, "the Waldeck Regiment, six hundred and seventy strong, came with this division..." "This division" being referred to in this specific reference, joined with the army after October 18, 1776 but, before October 23, 1776. The Battle of White Plains took place on October 28, 1776. Thus, the 3rd Waldeck Regiment certainly arrived in New York in time for the Battle of White Plains. But, in a latter passage of Lowell's work, also cited on page 75, it states clearly that "the new division was left to hold New Rochelle during the British advance on White Plains." One primary source currently at the disposal of this blog writer in Uhlendorf's work, Revolution in America, in which it clearly states, on page 65, that "the Waldeck Regiment, however, remained at Rochelle." Being that this is a primary source, this should prove to be conclusive evidence that the 3rd Waldeck Regiment did not take part in the Battle of White Plains but, remained behind to secure the areas vacated by the advancing British army. But, Pettengill's work, Letters from America, must also be considered a primary source in that it is a collection of 18th century letters and journal writings from German officers here in America during the American Revolution. This primary source, cited in the paragraph above, states that "...the Waldeck Regiment arrived and shared in the battle of Chatterton's Hill on October 28th..." Again, only further research, along with corroboration of sources, can determine the veracity of this claim of action by the 3rd Waldeck Regiment in the famous Battle of White Plains.)
The other geographical location of service for the 3rd Waldeck Regiment was the Floridas - both East and West. In the 18th century, the Florida "panhandle" used to extend much further west from its present-day extent just west of Pensacola, FL. It actually extended all the way to the Mississippi River, well into what is today the modern state of Louisiana. The dividing line of the two, separate Floridas, East and West, was along to Apalachicola River which runs roughly north to south about one hundred miles east of the present-day location of Pensacola, FL. All territory west of this river was considered "West Florida", with its capital at Pensacola. All territory east of this river was considered "East Florida", with its capital at St. Augustine. This region but, especially, the area of "West Florida" was to be the territory of operations for the 3rd Waldeck Regiment. According to Starr's work, Tories, Dons, and Rebels, page 130, General Henry Clinton, Commanding General of the British Forces in North America, ordered Brigadier General John Campbell to take the forces under his command and proceed to Pensacola, FL with a view to hold that post against any and all Spanish efforts to reduce and capture it. According to Pettengill's work, Letters from America, page 205, in a letter dated "October 31, 1778" and addressed from "On board the transport Crawford" states that "since the 20th of this month we have been on the ship and this afternoon we finally sail. Our destination, as many things allow us to surmise, will be Pensacola. What a distance! How will one be able to find one's way from there back to the Fatherland?" Again, according to Starr's work, Tories, Dons, and Rebels, page 130, the vessels headed initially for Kingston, Jamaica. Evidently, they encountered a storm at sea and became separated, arriving in Jamaica between November 30, 1778 and December 2, 1778, after four weeks at sea. The forces with Brigadier General Campbell in Jamaica amounted to 1,178 men of which 695 were members of the 3rd Waldeck Regiment.
The vessels were sorely in need of repair after the ferocity of the sea storm and in need of resupplies of food and fresh water. According to Starr's work, Tories, Dons and Rebels, page 131-132, the convoy of ships did not get under way until December 31, 1778. Once again, Campbell's convoy of ships encountered rough seas and finally sighted land on January 15, 1779, over two weeks later. Due to safety issues caused by adverse winds, the convoy was not able to safely enter Pensacola harbor until three days later, January 18, 1779. Brigadier General John Campbell gave the orders to disembark the next day, January 19, 1779. The 3rd Waldeck Regiment was on dry land once again, after almost two and a half months at sea.