Glassford, John. "Find a Grave Memorial", www.findagrave.com, 2011.
Hatcher, Patricia Law. Abstract of Revolutionary Patriot Graves, Vol. III, L-R, (Pioneer Heritage Press, 1988).
Kaminkow, Marion and Jack. Mariners of the American Revolution, (Magna Carta Book Company, 1967).
Lewis. James A. Neptune's Militia: The Frigate South Carolina During the American Revolution, (The Kent State University Press, 1999).
Lorenz, Lincoln. John Paul Jones: Fighter for Freedom and Glory, (United States Naval Institute, 1943).
Marcelais, Jenn. "A Very Grave Matter - Burying Grounds, Cemeteries, Gravestones & History of Newbury, Massachusetts", www.gravematter.com, 2002.
Morison, Samuel Eliot. John Paul Jones: A Sailor's Biography, (Little, Brown & Co., 1959).
Moss, Bobby Gilmer. Roster of South Carolina Patriots in the American Revolution, (Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1983).
Walker, Frank. John Paul Jones: Maverick Hero, (Casemate Publishers, 2008).
Wates, Wylma Anne. Stub Entries to Indents: Issued in Payment of Claims Against South Carolina Growing Out of the Revolution, (South Carolina Archives Department, 1957).
Pension Application of Richard Wall S22032
The information presented in this specific post deals primarily with an individual who never served on board the frigate South Carolina but, was captured in an event that involved the capture of another individual who would go on to serve on board the frigate South Carolina. This is the event concerning Richard Wall, Cadet of Marines of the frigate Bon Homme Richard and Cutting Lunt, the Sailing Master of the frigate Bon Homme Richard. Richard Wall would go on to serve on board the frigate South Carolina as a midshipman and experience a second capture as a member of the crew and marines of the frigate South Carolina off Cape Henlopen, DE on December 20, 1782.
At issue in this specific post is the actual manner of death and subsequent burial place of Cutting Lunt, Sailing Master of the frigate Bon Homme Richard. Two of the sources cited in the earlier post, "Richard Wall - 'Cadet of Marines' on board the Frigate Bon Homme Richard / Midshipman on board the Frigate South Carolina - Additional Information on Gilbert Wall and 'Cullen' Lunt, Pt. III" and dated "09/19/2015", are clear in stating that Cutting Lunt, Sailing Master of the frigate Bon Homme Richard was captured off the southeast coast of Ireland and died in a British prison, this being his second incarceration in a British-controlled prison. The writer of this blog feels with a marked degree of certainty that Cutting Lunt did not die in a British prison and is indeed buried here in the United States.
The earlier service of Cutting Lunt is recorded in Kaminkow's work, Mariners of the American Revolution, page 120, though in abbreviated form. In full textual form, it would read as:
Cutting Lunt was a native of Newburyport, MA. Initially, he served on board the Dalton. He was captured and committed to Old Mill Prison in June 1777. He was pardoned for exchange on both December 20, 1778 and December 11, 1779. He went with Paul Jones. Records regarding him are kept at Greenwich, England.
According to Kaminkow's work, Mariners, page xii, as it would turn out, among the first patriot ships-of-war captured by the British were the Charming Sally and the Dalton. Thus, Cutting Lunt was among some of the first prisoners-of-war who were transported to England for incarceration. When he and his other compatriot-sailors arrived in England in late 1776 or early 1777 as prisoners-of-war of the British forces, Old Mill Prison had not yet been made ready to receive them. So, he and the other captive Americans were passed from ship to ship in Plymouth harbor until the Old Mill Prison opened it doors to captured American sailors in June 1777. Cutting Lunt was pardoned for exchange twice, as his entry above indicates - once on December 20, 1778 and the second time on December 11, 1779, almost a year later.
According to the earlier service record for Cutting Lunt contained in Kaminkow's work, Mariners, page 120, cited above, this must be the same Cutting Lunt who became the Sailing Master of the frigate Bon Homme Richard under the command of Captain John Paul Jones. This statement is founded on the acknowledgement that he served under "Paul Jones" and that both of his dates of pardon for exchange post-date the battle between the frigate Bon Homme Richard and the HMS Serapis, just before which the jolly boat under the command of 3rd Lieutenant/Sailing Master Cutting Lunt was captured by the Kerry Rangers after having landed on the coast of Ireland, looking for food. His capture just off the southwestern coast of Ireland would have been around April 26, 1779 with his first pardon for exchange being issued on December 20, 1778, ending his first imprisonment, and his second pardon for exchange being issued on December 11, 1779 after his second capture around April 26, 1779. Richard Wall, a "Cadet of Marines" on board the frigate Bon Homme Richard and later "Midshipman" on board the frigate South Carolina refers to this capture in his pension application, "Pension Application Richard Wall S22032" because Richard Wall was the other officer present and captured along with Cutting Lunt at that time.
One notices easily that Cutting Lunt has not one but, two dates for pardon for exchange - December 20, 1778 and December 11, 1779. According to Kaminkow's work, Mariners, page xvi, these pardons might be "pompous farces" because the man pardoned might have already escaped by the time his pardon was issued by King George III or even though a pardon was issued and dated, the man might "...still be found languishing in prison in 1782". Thus, it could certainly be that Cutting Lunt was pardoned initially in December 1778 but, not transported to France in the manner of all pardoned Americans held prisoner in England. At his second pardon, almost a year after the first pardon, he appears to have been sent to France to find his own way home to America.
But, in Morison's work, John Paul Jones: A Sailor's Biography, page 203, a couple of points are brought out which should assist in clarifying the proper chronology of events concerning the imprisonments of Cutting Lunt. The passage is initially addressing Henry Lunt, a cousin of Cutting Lunt, who along with Cutting Lunt, had shipped on "...a privateer, which was captured on Christmas Eve 1776". This must be a direct reference to the Dalton, which is also referred to as "a privateer" and was captured on December 24, 1776. The account continues, though: "After more than two years spent in Mill Prison, the Lunts were exchanged and arrived at Nantes in a cartel [prisoner exchange] in March 1779. This date falls between the two pardon for exchange dates for Cutting Lunt - December 20, 1778 and December 11, 1779. Thus, he appears, from the citation in Morison's work, to have been successfully exchanged to France in December 1778 where he and his cousin, Henry Lunt, signed on board the frigate Bon Homme Richard under the command of Captain John Paul Jones. At this point, Cutting Lunt "...went with Paul Jones..." and was later captured on April 26, 1779 off the coats of Ireland, which resulted in his second imprisonment in England at Old Mill Prison. His second pardon for exchange came in December 1779 and concluded with Cutting Lunt being transported in yet another prisoner cartel to France, where he must have sought passage home to America.
In the post cited earlier and dated "09/19/2015", two biographies of John Paul Jones cite the second imprisonment of 3rd Lieutenant / Sailing Master Cutting Lunt ended in a death of Cutting Lunt. There two sources are Walker's work, John Paul Jones: Maverick Hero, pages 125-126, and Lorenz's work, John Paul Jones: Fighter for Freedom and Glory, pages 275-276. Both of these sources explicitly state that Cutting Lunt did not survive his second imprisonment in British-controlled prisons. If Cutting Lunt had died in Old Mill Prison, near Plymouth, England, one would expect he was buried there. But, there is evidence that he died later and was buried in Newbury, MA.
According to Glassford's work for Cutting Lunt on "Find a Grave Memorial" (www.findagrave.com) there is a grave in the First Parish Burying Ground in Newbury, MA that bears the name of Cutting Lunt. It cites Cutting Lunt as having been born on January 22, 1713 in Newbury, Essex County, Massachusetts. His death date is cited as being December 29, 1790 in the same town, county, and state. Cutting Lunt is referenced as "Ensign Cutting Lunt" in this article which indicates that he was an officer in whatever branch of the military he served. According to Marcelias's work, "A Very Grave Matter - Burying Grounds, Cemeteries, Gravestones & History of Newbury, Massachusetts" (www.gravematter.com) information concerning Cutting Lunt states the following:
Ensign Cutting Lunt d. 1796, Captain of Marines on the schooner privateer Independence, later commander of the same ship, and master of the privateer America. He was also captured by the British on the brigantine Dalton and a Master of the Bon Homme Richard, commanded by John Paul Jones.
There is slight discrepancy as to his year of death, either 1790 according to Glassford or 1796 according to Marcelais. But, this is slight, as stated. Obviously, Cutting Lunt had previous naval experience on board the schooner Independence and the "ship" America, both privateers. All the information after this point corresponds with the previously given information contained in this post and the earlier, lengthy post dated "09/19/2015". Cutting Lunt was captured on board the brigantine Dalton and was later a Master [Sailing Master] on board the frigate Bon Homme Richard under the command of Captain John Paul Jones. This is most certainly the same individual who is addressed in both of the above mentioned posts. This information coincides with the grave abstract found in Hatcher's work, Grave Abstracts of Revolutionary Patriots, page 38, which documents that Cutting Lunt is buried "opposite the church in Newbury, MA" and was identified as his grave in 1956.
Thus, it would seem that Cutting Lunt did not die in Old Mill Prison in Plymouth, England and was not buried in a common grave yard associated with the internment of American prisoners-of-war interned there. Instead, Cutting Lunt appears to have survived both his captures and imprisonments, the first in winter 1776 and the second in spring 1779, at the hands of the British and eventually returned home to die in either 1790 or 1796. He was then buried with honor in the "First Parish Burying Ground" in Newbury, MA. By any account, he had lived an extraordinary life and had seen many sights, possibly the most satisfying being the birth of the country for which he had fought and suffered imprisonment at the hands of its enemies. But, like his newly-independent homeland, Cutting Lunt survived struggle and privation to succeed and eventually have his mortal remains committed to the soil of his new nation.
(Note: It would seem that Cutting Lunt, Sailing Master of the frigate Bon Homme Richard, only had a single connection with the frigate South Carolina, which is the main concern and focus of this blog. That connection would be Richard Wall, who initially was a "Cadet of Marines" on board the frigate Bon Homme Richard and, in that capacity, was captured along with Cutting Lunt and the rest of the crew of the jolly boat of the frigate Bon Homme Richard on or about April 26, 1779. An entry for Richard Wall also appears in Kaminkow's work, Mariners, page 200, and is almost identical to the entry for Cutting Lunt except that Wall was committed to Forton Prison in Gosport, England, near Portsmouth.
But, there is a second connection that Cutting Lunt has to the frigate South Carolina. In Glassford's work, "Find a Grave Memorial", a reference is made to a "Richard Lunt", who the author of this article [not the author of this blog] assumes to be a son of Cutting Lunt. His birth date is unknown but, his death date is cited as 1796.
The following entry for Richard Lunt is found in Kaminkow's work, Mariners, page 120, and is cited here in full:
Richard Lunt was a native of Newburyport, MA. Initially, he served on board the Dalton. He was captured and committed to Old Mill Prison in June 1777. He was pardoned for exchange on December 26, 1778. He also served on board the frigate Alliance. Records regarding him are kept at Greenwich, England.
The following entry for Richard Lunt is found in Moss's work, Roster of South Carolina Patriots, page 587, and is cited as follows:
Richard Lunt - he served a a gunner's mate aboard the frigate South Carolina. AA1880A; C669.
The following entry for Richard Lunt is found in Lewis's work, Neptune's Militia, the section entitled "Appendix: Crew and Marines of the South Carolina, page 156 and is as follows:
Richard Lunt Gunner's Yeoman
Finally, an entry for Richard Lunt also is found in Wates's work, Stub Entries to Indents, page 119, and is cited as follows:
No. 669, Book C - Issued the 31 of May 1785 to Mr. Richard Lunt for Fifty two Pounds thirteen Shillings and three Pence Sterling for Ballance of Wages due him as Gunners Yeoman on Board the Frigate South Carolina as per Certificate from the Auditor General.
Principal - 52p.13s.3d
Interest - 3p.13s.8d
Since his name does not appear on any of the three captive's lists for the three British men-of-war - HMS Diomede, HMS Quebec, HMS Astrea - and since he did receive a certificate from the government of South Carolina for his services performed on board the frigate South Carolina after the conclusion of the war, we may with certainty assume that he was not a member of the crew or marines of the frigate South Carolina when she was captured on December 20, 1782 off Cape Henlopen, DE. He must have chosen to leave the service of the frigate at some point before she set sail on her final, brief voyage.
The four citations for Richard Lunt cited above indicate that he did indeed serve on board the frigate South Carolina. Earlier, he had served along with his father, Cutting Lunt, and his father;s cousin, Henry Lunt, on board the privateer brigantine Dalton. He, too, had been captured on Christmas Eve, December 24, 1776, and been sent to Old Mill Prison for where he was pardoned for exchange on December 26, 1778, six days after his father and father's cousin were pardoned for exchange.
Thus, Richard Lunt, the son of Cutting Lunt and nephew, once-removed of Henry Lunt, is the second connection that Cutting Lunt has with the frigate South Carolina. It is a small world, indeed.)